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Are you interested in how diamonds are valued and their quality is assessed?
There are 4 basic parameters, namely:
- cut of the diamond (cut)
- clarity of the diamond (clarity)
- color of the diamond (color)
- diamond weight (carat)
They are collectively called the 4C (after the first letter of their name in English), these characteristics are essential in determining the price of diamonds.
CUT:A modern brilliant cut, which gives a diamond its brilliance, is based on optical calculations, focusing on the maximum beauty of a stone, which is the result of its high brilliance and its reflection. A brilliant cut has a round outline and consists of a crown (32 facets + table) and a pavilion (24 facets + possible calette). However, diamonds are also cut into many other shapes, including marquise, baguette, heart, teardrop, oval and princess cuts.
CLEANLINESS:This is determined by the number of foreign substances contained in the observed diamond. These inhomogeneities can have internal characteristics (called inclusions and they are dark "carbon", white "ice", cracks...) that have been formed in different stages of crystal formation. They can also be external characteristics (such as scratches, superfluous facets, naturals...) that have been created by machining or could not be removed by machining.
INTERNATIONAL DIAMOND CLARITY SCALE
LC (Loupe-Clean) or IF (Internal Flawless) - A diamond is marked "loupe-clean" if, under specified conditions, the diamond meets the condition of absolute transparency without inclusions.
VVS* (Very Very Small) (VVS 1, VVS 2) - Very very small inclusions that are very difficult to detect at 10x magnification.
VS* (Very Small) (VS 1,VS 2) - Very small inclusions that are very difficult to detect at 10x magnification.
SI* (Small Inclusions) (SI 1, SI 2) - Small inclusions easily detectable with a magnifying glass at 10x magnification but not visible to the naked eye from the crown side of the cut.
PI (Pique) - Medium inclusions easily seen at 10x magnification and difficult to see with the naked eye from the crown side of the cut, not disturbing the brilliance.
P II (Pique II) - Large and numerous inclusions, very easy to detect with the naked eye from the crown side of the cut, slightly reducing the brilliance of the diamond.
P III (Pique III) - Large and numerous inclusions, very easy to detect with the naked eye from the crown side of the cut, reducing the brilliance of the diamond.
COLOR:Diamond is the only gemstone in nature that occurs in all color modifications. However, diamonds found in nature are most often found in colors ranging from white to yellow after being cut. An international color scale has been adopted for these basic colors, which are denoted by the letters D to Z. The whiter the color of the stone, the closer its designation is to the beginning of the alphabet.
D to F - colorless diamonds;
G to J - almost colorless diamonds;
K to M - diamonds with a hint of yellow;
N to Z - diamonds with a yellow-brown tinge.
Fancy color - are called diamonds with intense color (red, orange, pink, blue, etc..).
Fluorescence - means that when a diamond is exposed to UV light, some stones emit colored light.
The weight of a diamond is always given in carats, for which the abbreviation "ct" is used internationally. This weight is given to two decimal places on certificates. However, the actual measurement is to three decimal places, with the second decimal place being rounded up only if the third decimal place is 9.
1 ct = 200 mg = 0,2 g
Other data found on the certificates may include, for example: dimensional data, fluorescence, map of internal and external characteristics, etc.
If you want to understand exactly the diamond grading system, we recommend the world-renowned textbook by Verena Pagel - Theisen Diamond Grading ABC.